The Range Expansions of Large Symbiont-Bearing Foraminifera
Langer, M.R., Weinmann, A.E., Lotters, S., Bernhard, J.M. and Rodder, D. 2013. Climate-driven range extension of Amphistegina (Protista, Foraminiferida): Models of current and predicted future ranges. PLOS ONE 8: e54443.
The work of the five researchers revealed, in their words, that "amphisteginid foraminifera are rapidly progressing southwestward, closely approaching Port Edward (South Africa) at 31°S," moving at rates computed to be between 8 and 2.7 km per year," which rates are "projected to lead to a total southward range expansion of 267 km, or 2.4° latitude, in the year 2100." And they indicate that these findings are "congruent with analogous observations in Mediterranean amphisteginids (Langer et al., 2012) and numerous other marine ectotherms (Yamano et al., 2011; Sorte et al., 2010; Belanger et al., 2012; Luning, 1990; Schmidt-Nielsen, 1990)," which are expanding their range of influence.
In concluding, Langer et al. indicate that their results "corroborate findings from the fossil record that some larger symbiont-bearing foraminifera cope well with rising water temperatures and are beneficiaries of global climate change [italics added]."
Belanger, C.L., Jablonski, D., Roy, K., Berke, S.K., Krug, A.Z. and Valentine, J.W. 2012. Global environmental predictors of benthic marine biogeographic structure. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 109: 14,046-14,051.
Langer, M.R., Weinmann, A.E., Lotters, S. and Rodder, D. 2012. "Strangers" in Paradise: Modeling the biogeographic range expansion of the foraminifera Amphistegina in the Mediterranean Sea. Journal of Foraminiferal Research 42: 234-244.
Luning, K. 1990. Seaweeds: Their Environment, Biogeography and Ecophysiology. Wiley-Interscience, New York, New York, USA.
Schmidt-Nielsen, K. 1990. Temperature effects. In: Schmidt-Nielsen, K. (Ed.). Animal Physiology: Adaptation and Environment. Cambridge University Press, New York, New York, USA, pp. 217-239.
Sorte, C.J.B., Williams, S.L. and Carlton, J.T. 2010. Marine range shifts and species introductions: comparative spread rates and community impacts. Global Ecology and Biogeography 19: 303-316.
Yamano, H., Sugihara, K. and Nomura, D. 2011. Rapid poleward range expansion of tropical reef corals in response to rising sea surface temperatures. Geophysical Research Letters 38: 10.1029/2010GL046474.