Elevated CO2 Enhances the Berry Quality of Sub-Arctic Shrubs
Gwynn-Jones, D., Jones, A.G., Waterhouse, A., Winters, A., Comont, D., Scullion, J., Gardias, R., Graee, B.J., Lee, J.A. and Callaghan, T.V. 2012. Enhanced UV-B and elevated CO2 impacts sub-Arctic shrub berry abundance, quality and seed germination. Ambio 41 (Supplement 3): 256-268.
As best as can be determined from the ten researchers' graphically-presented results, it appears that the mean concentration of quercetin glycosides in V. myrtillus was increased by approximately 46% by the approximate mean CO2 concentration increase of 227 ppm. In E. hermaphroditum, on the other hand, syringetin glycoside concentrations were increased by about 36% by the extra CO2, while five anthocyanins had their concentrations increased as follows: delphinidin-3-hexoside by about 51%, cyanidin-3-hexoside by about 49%, petunidin-3-hexoside by about 48%, malvidin-3-pentoside by about 46% and malvidin-3-hexoside by about 59%.
In light of their several findings and their implications for humans, Gwynn-Jones et al. say that "consumers of E. hermaphroditum may gain higher antioxidant intake at elevated CO2," while adding that "some European bird species show preferential feeding towards berries with higher antioxidant contents (Catoni et al., 2008), which could have important implications for the palatability and, therefore, seed dispersal of these species."
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