The Delayed Benefits of Larval-Stage Stresses in a Marine Fish
Zambonino-Infante, J.L., Claireaux, G., Ernande, B., Jolivet, A., Quazuguel, P., Severe, A., Huelvan, C. and Mazurais, D. 2013. Hypoxia tolerance of common sole juveniles depends on dietary regime and temperature at the larval stage: evidence for environmental conditioning. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 280: 10.1098/rspb.2012.3022.
Working with the common sole (Solea solea), which inhabits shallow marine areas highly exposed to environmental changes, Zambonino-Infante et al. "tested whether temperature and trophic conditions experienced during the larval stage had delayed effects on life-history traits and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile state," thereby examining "the combined effect of global warming and hypoxia in coastal waters, which are potential stressors to many estuarine and coastal marine fishes."
The eight French researchers report the results of their analysis showed that "warmer larval temperature had a delayed positive effect on body mass and resistance to hypoxia at the juvenile stage," which finding "suggests a lower oxygen demand of individuals that had experienced elevated temperatures during larval stages." Zambonino-Infante et al. thus conclued "this study clearly demonstrates that environmental conditions experienced during early developmental stages are important in controlling environmental adaptation performance at later life stages." More specifically, they state that "sole that had experienced elevated temperatures during their early-life exhibited higher body masses and tolerance to hypoxia, probably through long-term programming of metabolic pathways," noting that "such a cohort effect on growth performance and hypoxia tolerance could have major implications for population dynamics." And, therefore, they state that the larger implications of the results of their study are that (1) "developmental plasticity in animals may allow adaptation to changing environmental conditions to have delayed effects," and that (2) "this may attenuate some of the more severe predictions about organisms' responses to global warming and eutrophication."