Correctly Modelling the Indian Summer Monsoon
Prodhomme, C., Terray, P., Masson, S., Izumo, T., Tozuka, T. and Yamagata, T. 2014. Impacts of Indian Ocean SST biases on the Indian Monsoon: as simulated in a global coupled model. Climate Dynamics 42: 271-290.
"In this study," according to Prodhomme et al., "the impact of the ocean-atmosphere coupling on the atmospheric mean state over the Indian Ocean and the ISM is examined in the framework of the SINTEX-F2 coupled model through forced and coupled control simulations and several sensitivity coupled experiments."
In the words of the six scientists, they determined that (1) "during boreal winter and spring, most of the Indian Ocean biases are common in forced and coupled simulations, suggesting that the errors originate from the atmospheric model, especially a dry islands bias in the Maritime Continent," that (2) "during boreal summer, the air-sea coupling decreases the ISM rainfall over South India and the monsoon strength to realistic amplitude, but at the expense of important degradations of the rainfall and SST mean states in the Indian Ocean," that (3) "strong SST biases of opposite sign are observed over the western (WIO) and eastern (EIO) tropical Indian Ocean," that (4) "rainfall amounts over the ocean (land) are systematically higher (lower) in the Northern Hemisphere," that (5) "the south equatorial Indian Ocean rainfall band is missing in the control coupled simulation," and that (6) "during boreal fall, positive dipole-like errors emerge in the mean state of the coupled model, with warm and wet (cold and dry) biases in the WIO (EIO), suggesting again a significant impact of the SST errors."
So are we "there" yet? Unfortunately not, for in spite of all that has been accomplished in the quest to correctly model the Indian Summer Monsoon, the world's climate modelers still have a significant way to go before they arrive at their designated destination.
Bollasina, M.A. and Nigam, S. 2009. Indian Ocean SST, evaporation, and precipitation during the South Asian summer monsoon in IPCC AR4 coupled simulations. Climate Dynamics 33: 1017-1032.
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Terray, P., Kamala, K., Masson, S., Madec, G., Sahai, A.K., Luo, J.-J. and Yamagata, T. 2012. The role of the intra-daily SST variability in the Indian Monsoon variability and monsoon-ENSO-IOD relationships in a global coupled model. Climate Dynamics 39: 729-754.
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