Modelling SST Variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean
Richter, I., Xie, S.-P., Behera, S.K., Doi, T. and Masumoto, Y. 2014. Equatorial Atlantic variability and its relation to mean state biases in CMIP5. Climate Dynamics 42: 171-188..
The five researchers report that (1) "in terms of the mean state, 29 out of 33 models examined continue to suffer from serious biases including an annual mean zonal equatorial SST gradient whose sign is opposite to observations," that (2) "the seasonal evolution of model biases ... involves [i] weakening of the equatorial easterlies in boreal spring, [ii] subsequent deepening of the eastern equatorial thermocline, and [iii] maximum cold tongue SST bias during the boreal summer upwelling season," that (3) "March-April-May surface wind biases are incipient in the atmospheric model components forced with observed SST," that (4) "they are associated with precipitation biases over the adjacent landmasses and a southward shift of the marine ITCZ [Intertropical Convergence Zone]," that (5) "both [i] magnitude and [ii] seasonal evolution of the biases are very similar to what was found previously for CMIP3 models, indicating that [interim] improvements have only been modest," and, finally, that (6) "the weaker than observed equatorial easterlies are also simulated by atmospheric GCMs forced with observed SSTs."
Folland, C.K., Palmer, T.N. and Parker, D.E. 1986. Sahel rainfall and worldwide sea temperatures. Nature 320: 602-607.
Nobre, P. and Shukla, J. 1996. Variations of sea surface temperature, wind stress, and rainfall over the tropical Atlantic and South America. Journal of Climate 9: 2464-2479.