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August 2011 Archive of Scientific Literature Reviews

State-of-the-Art Climate Models and Extreme Meteorological Events and Consequences (2 August 2011)
Some choice remarks on the ability of the former to correctly simulate the latter are provided by Kevin Trenberth... Read More
Early Life Stages of Shrimp and Mussels in Low pH Seawater (2 August 2011)
Do the shellfish exhibit more-than-normal difficulties that portend further problems while progressing towards maturity?... Read More
Surface Melting and the Dynamics of the Greenland Ice Sheet (2 August 2011)
Does warming-induced surface melting lead to enhanced ice sheet movement towards the sea?... Read More
Synergistic Effects of Heat and Other Stresses on Coral Larvae Survival (2 August 2011)
If humanity's many physical and chemical disturbances of the planet's coral reef environments were either eliminated or significantly reduced, there would be much less warming-induced destruction of corals throughout the world... Read More
A Multi-Century History of Forest Fires in Central Siberia (2 August 2011)
Contrary to the contentions of many "experts," the real-world results of Wallenius et al., plus those of the other researchers they mention, suggest just the opposite of what the world's climate alarmists would have one believe about climate change and wildfires, as fires appear to have declined in this part of the planet as the earth emerged from the global chill of the Little Ice Age... Read More
Global Warming and Malaria Transmission in Burundi (3 August 2011)
According to the authors of this new paper, any increase in temperature "may lead to unsuitable climate conditions for mosquitoes survival and, hence, probably to a decreasing malaria transmission"... Read More
Storms of Southeast Australia (3 August 2011)
Over the past century in nearly all regions and seasons, linear trends estimated for storm indices show a decrease... Read More
Pre-Industrial Climate Change and Human Population (3 August 2011)
Historically, and for the Northern Hemisphere as a whole, warming and warmer times have most often been good times for humanity, as exemplified by the greater numbers of people the earth was able to support under such conditions, while cooling and colder times were typically just the opposite, with many significant population collapses, caused by what Zhang et al. describe as "Malthusian checks (i.e., famines, wars and epidemics)"... Read More
Which is responsible for more U.S. deaths - Excessive Heat or Excessive Cold? (3 August 2011)
Deaths from excessove heat number about twice as many as from excessive cold... Read More
Other Challenges Are Likely to be More Significant than Climate Change (3 August 2011)
This paper summarizes the results of several analyses that investigate the global impacts on various determinants of human well-being, including malaria, agricultural productivity, water stress, sea level rise, and heating and cooling demand through 2100 under a "no climate change" scenario and two "policy" scenarios... Read More
Floods of the Upper Midwest United States: A 75-Year History (9 August 2011)
Trend analyses, according to the authors, "do not suggest an increase in the flood peak distribution due to anthropogenic climate change"... Read More
The Ethics of Biofuels (9 August 2011)
It should be abundantly clear to everyone that before one discusses "ethics" in the context of earth's climate and biosphere, one must first determine the validity (or not!) of the "predictions" that are being made by the world's climate alarmists... Read More
The Real Recipe for Coral Bleaching (9 August 2011)
Bring seawater to higher-than-normal temperature and add a pinch of pollution... Read More
Reconstructing Seawater pH in the South China Sea (9 August 2011)
The δ11B-derived pH values for the South China Sea fluctuated between a pH of 7.91 and 8.29 during the past seven thousand years, revealing a large natural fluctuation in this parameter that is nearly four times the 0.1 pH unit decline the acidification alarmists predict should have occurred since pre-industrial times... Read More
CO2 Enrichment at Sea (9 August 2011)
Both the micro- and macro-algae of the world's oceans should be able to increase primary productivity in the brave new (and CO2-enriched) world of the future... Read More
Empirical Modeling: Could it be Natural Cycles Influencing Climate Change? (10 August 2011)
An important paper by Loehle and Scafetta (2011) was recently published which shows that a simple empirically derived model can be developed to fit the global temperature anomaly series from 1850 - 2010. This model includes both natural and anthropogenic forcing and demonstrates that natural forcing was the larger contributor to recent (1970-2000) warming. This model is then used to project global climate to the year 2100 and the results are good news... Read More
Another Downside of Biofuels (10 August 2011)
Their production has the potential for creating numerous severe negative impacts on the health of both humans and wildlife... Read More
Deaths and Death Rates from Excessive Heat Events Have Declined in Most U.S. Cities (10 August 2011)
It's good news and probably due to a combination of acclimation and adaptation... Read More
Will It Be Species Extinction or Species Persistence? (10 August 2011)
... if the planet warms as predicted by the IPCC and other climate-alarmist organizations... Read More
Extreme Weather: Cold Weather Extremes to Continue Under 21st Century Warming Scenarios (10 August 2011)
The findings of this paper are puzzling, especially in the context of present debate on global warming and possibility of more hot weather extremes in future. The findings of this study also appear to be at odds with previous studies mentioned above (by Meehl and others) which do not examine nor suggest increasing cold weather extremes in future climate projections... Read More
The Sensitivity of GCM Output to Aerosol Parameterization (16 August 2011)
One of the problems that have been highlighted with models is that certain processes can only be represented using an educated guess, or what climate scientists call "parameterization". When dealing with micro-scale (or sub-grid) processes such as cloud formation, radiation, or atmospheric chemistry, this is the only possible way to represent these in a model. Then, the model output can be significantly dependent on how such processes are represented, especially when projecting climate far into the future... Read More
Modeling the North American Monsoon (16 August 2011)
Regional climate models driven by the "most commonly used" GCMs do not yield realistic simulations of the current climate and therefore do not offer a realistic projection of the North American monsoon... Read More
Forests Find More Nitrogen in the Soils of a Warming World (16 August 2011)
This phenomenon may well sustain their long-term ability to positively respond to the aerial fertilization effect of atmospheric CO2 enrichment... Read More
The Next Ninety Years of Terrestrial Hydrological Activity in China (16 August 2011)
Vegetation water stress on plant growth could be generally eased by climate changes and rising CO2... Read More
Sea Urchin Larvae Living in Periodically Low-pH Seawater (16 August 2011)
Results of a new study demonstrate a potential resilience to near-future levels of ocean acidification... Read More
Implications of an Extended Multivariate ENSO Index (17 August 2011)
According to the data examined, "none of the behavior of recent ENSO events appears unprecedented, including duration, onset timing, and spacing in the last few decades compared to a full century before then," whereas prior computer model simulations have at various times suggested that: (1) global warming will increase the frequency of ENSO events, (2) global warming will increase the intensity of ENSO events, and (3) weather-related disasters will be exacerbated under El Niño conditions... Read More
Woody Thickening in Australia (17 August 2011)
The case for it occurring in response to the ongoing rise in the air's CO2 content grows ever stronger, both "down under" and throughout the world... Read More
The Future of Earth's Coral Reefs (17 August 2011)
The authors of this paper note that "the best and most achievable thing we can do for coral reefs currently to deal with climate change is to seek to manage them well," by reducing more direct anthropogenic impacts such as fishing, pollution, and habitat destruction, which fragment populations or decrease population sizes and reduce the potential of coral reefs to adapt to warmer, more acidic conditions... Read More
On Determining Changes in Intertidal Marine Species Ranges (17 August 2011)
How well suited for the task is a knowledge of regional air temperature change? According to this new study, not very well... Read More
The Effect of Elevated CO2 on N2O and CH4 Fluxes from a Warming and Drying Temperate Heathland (17 August 2011)
Results of a new study suggest that "in the future, CH4 uptake may increase slightly, while N2O emission will remain unchanged in temperate ecosystems on well-aerated soils"... Read More
Tropical Cyclones and Super Typhoons: Their Influence on China (23 August 2011)
Tropical cyclones and super typhoons impacting China are becoming both less frequent and less ferocious... Read More
Surviving Global Warming Without Migrating Very Far (23 August 2011)
Even slugish limpets can do it... Read More
The Fate of Boreal Peatlands in a Warming World (23 August 2011)
"Contrary to previous predictions, both ecosystem photosynthesis and respiration showed similar increases in response to warmer and drier conditions," such that "the ecosystem remained a strong net sink for CO2 with an average net ecosystem production of 189 ± 47 gC/m2/year"... Read More
CO2 and Global Vegetation: From the Last Glacial Maximum to the Pre-Industrial Holocene (23 August 2011)
It is "necessary to invoke ecophysiological CO2 effects in order to account for the reduction in the tropical forest area at [the] LGM as shown by pollen data," which effects are the aerial fertilization and water-use-efficiency-promoting effects of atmospheric CO2 enrichment working in reverse, as the air's CO2 content declines when moving backwards in time from the PIH to the LGM... Read More
N2 and CO2 Fixation in a Unicellular Marine Cyanobacterium (23 August 2011)
Anthropogenic CO2 enrichment may well "substantially increase global oceanic N2 and CO2 fixation," which two-pronged phenomenon would be a tremendous boon to the marine biosphere... Read More
Testing the Entire Suite of IPCC AR4 Models (24 August 2011)
Furtado et al. conclude that "for implications on future climate change, the coupled climate models show no consensus on projected future changes in frequency of either the first or second leading pattern of North Pacific SST anomalies," and they say that "the lack of a consensus in changes in either mode also affects confidence in projected changes in the overlying atmospheric circulation"... Read More
Not All Australian Marine Fauna Obeying Climate-Alarmist Dogma (24 August 2011)
In fact, some are even acting counter to it... Read More
A 2200-Year Storm History from North Carolina's Barrier Islands (24 August 2011)
Relative to climatic conditions of both the Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age, there has more recently been "a general decrease in storminess at mid-latitudes in the North Atlantic," reflecting "more stable climate conditions, fewer storm impacts (both hurricane and nor'easter), and a decrease in the average wind intensity and wave energy field in the mid-latitudes of the North Atlantic"... Read More
Damaging Tropical Cyclones of China (24 August 2011)
There is "no significant trend in tropical cyclone casualties over the past 24 years"... Read More
Old-Growth Forests of Tropical Africa (24 August 2011)
Are they feeling their age? ... or are they catching their second wind?... Read More
Ocean Acidification and Otolith Development in Clown Fish (30 August 2011)
At high CO2 (low water pH), "there was no effect of the intermediate treatment on otolith size, shape, symmetry between left and right otoliths, or otolith elemental chemistry, compared with controls"... Read More
Climate Change-Induced Storminess Over the Eastern Irish Sea (30 August 2011)
The three UK researchers say their results "show no evidence of enhanced storminess or increases in surge heights or extreme water levels," and that "the evolution of the coastline analyzed at various temporal scales shows no strong connection with metocean trends"... Read More
Modeled Warming-Induced Changes in Oceanic DMS Production (30 August 2011)
It can finally be appreciated that this strong biological response to a CO2-induced impetus for warming, can result in a greatly-strengthened negative regional feedback -- via enhanced regional cloud development -- that results in more incoming solar radiation being reflected back to space with enhanced regional cooling... Read More
Climate and Beavers in Yellowstone National Park (USA) (30 August 2011)
How are they related and what do they reveal about the region's past?... Read More
The Carbon Status of Earth's Peatlands (30 August 2011)
Permafrost thaw "may promote a boost in peat carbon sequestration," and "future warming could result in a shift northward in long-term West Siberian Lowland carbon sequestration"... Read More
Ethanol Produced from Sugarcane (31 August 2011)
All things considered, it is by no means certain that there is any benefit to be accrued from the substitution of bioethanol from sugarcane for fossil fuels... Read More
Water Runoff from Europe's Upper Rhine River Basin (31 August 2011)
It did not vary considerably during the past 200 years and will probably not vary considerably during the next 200 years... Read More
Antarctic Sea Ice Extent (31 August 2011)
For some still-unproven reason, and in spite of the supposedly unprecedented increases in mean global air temperature and CO2 concentration that the planet has experienced since the late 1970s, Antarctica sea ice extent has stubbornly continued to just keep on growing... Read More
Responses of Black Grouse in the French Alps to Global Warming (31 August 2011)
Black Grouse have "been able to track climatic trends towards a warmer and drier climate," and "appear to be more threatened by declines in the availability of suitable areas and changes in habitat structure than by direct effects of climate warming on [their] reproduction"... Read More
Carbon Sequestration in China Over the Past Century (31 August 2011)
Without the aerial fertilization effect of CO2, there would have been a net loss of carbon storage within China's vegetation and soils. With it, China experienced a net gain... Read More